Publications


CIFS researchers and cooperating scientists have authored and co-authored numerous publications describing research that supports natural resource management and decision making. Select a title below or search for publications by author, title, or keyword using the search feature on the right side of this page.


Recent Publications

Publication Streamflow response to increasing precipitation extremes altered by forest management
Published: 2016

Increases in extreme precipitation events of floods and droughts are expected to occur worldwide. The increase in extreme events will result in changes in streamflow that are expected to affect water availability for human consumption and aquatic ecosystem function. We present an analysis that may greatly improve current streamflow models by quantifying the impact of the...

Publication Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments
Published: 2016

In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of riparian plant...

Publication Echohydrological implications of drought for forests in the United States
Published: 2016

The relationships among drought, surface water flow, and groundwater recharge are not straightforward for most forest ecosystems due to the strong role that vegetation plays in the forest water balance. Hydrologic responses to drought can be either mitigated or exacerbated by forest vegetation depending upon vegetation water use and how forest population dynamics respond to...

Publication Oak, fire, and global change in the eastern USA: what might the future hold?
Published: 2016

The pace of environmental and socioeconomic change over the past 100 years has been rapid. Changes in fire regimes, climate, and land use have shaped the structure and function of most forest ecosystems, including oak (Quercus spp. L.) forests in the eastern United States.New stressors such as air pollution and invasive species have contributed to and interacted with climate...

Publication Watershed memory at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory: the effect of past precipitation and storage on hydrologic response
Published: 2016

The rainfall-runoff response of watersheds is affected by the legacy of past hydroclimatic conditions. We examined how variability in precipitation affected streamflow using 21 years of daily streamflow and precipitation data from five watersheds at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in southwestern North Carolina, USA. The gauged watersheds contained both coniferous and...

Publication High elevation watersheds in the southern Appalachians: indicators of sensitivity to acidic deposition and the potential for restoration through liming
Published: 2016

Southern Appalachian high elevation watersheds have deep rocky soils with high organic matter content, different vegetation communities, and receive greater inputs of acidic deposition compared to low elevation sites within the region. Since the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment in the 1990s, concentrations of acidic anions in rainfall have declined. However, some...

Publication Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory
Published: 2016

We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a demand limitation driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) hydraulic limitation of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3)...

Publication Characterizing drought for forested landscapes and streams
Published: 2016

The purpose of this chapter is to explore drought as a hydrometeorological phenomenon and reflect broadly on the characteristics of drought that influence forests, rangelands, and streams. It is a synthesis of understanding about drought processes, hydrology, paleoclimatology, and historical climate variability, and how this understanding can help predict potential future...

Publication Forest management challenges for sustaining water resources in the Anthropocene
Published: 2016

The Earth has entered the Anthropocene epoch that is dominated by humans who demand unprecedented quantities of goods and services from forests. The science of forest hydrology and watershed management generated during the past century provides a basic understanding of relationships among forests and water and offers management principles that maximize the benefits of forests...

Publication Riparian area harvesting impacts on vegetation composition and diversity
Published: 2016

In the southern Appalachians USA, the boundaries of riparian areas are often hard to define. Vegetation is often used as a riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify floristic composition and diversity of the riparian communities before...

Publication The future of southern forest
Published: 2016

The southeastern United States contains expansive and diverse forests that provide many values and services. The future of these forests will depend on many factors, including wood products markets, urban growth and development, insects and diseases, and climate changes.

Publication Ecohydrological implications of drought
Published: 2016

Ecohydrology focuses on the interactions and interrelationships between hydrological processes and the structure and function of vegetation (Breshears 2005, Rodriguez-Iturbe 2000). It builds on a long history of watershed science that quantified how changes in vegetation (e.g., through purposeful manipulation. succession, or natural disturbances) alters water and streamflow...

Publication Effects of drought on forests and rangelands in the United States: a comprehensive science synthesis
Published: 2016

This assessment provides input to the reauthorized National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) and the National Climate Assessment (NCA), and it establishes the scientific foundation needed to manage for drought resilience and adaptation. Focal areas include drought characterization; drought impacts on forest processes and disturbances such as insect outbreaks and...

Publication Projection methods
Published: 2016

One purpose of the Northern Forest Futures Project is to predict change in future forest attributes across the 20 States in the U.S. North for the period that extends from 2010 to 2060. The forest attributes of primary interest are the 54 indicators of forest sustainability identified in the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (Montreal Process Working Group, n.d.; USDA...

Publication Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems
Published: 2016

This chapter reports projected changes in forest area, age, volume, biomass, number of trees, and removals from 2010 to 2060 for alternative scenarios that bracket a range of possible future socioeconomic and climate conditions in the Northern United States, which consists of 20 central and northeastern States. As described in Chapter 2, the scenarios incorporate different...

Publication Projections of forest contributions to global carbon cycles
Published: 2016

Forests cover 42 percent of the Northern United States, and collectively they store 13 billion tons of carbon in live trees (29 percent), roots (6 percent), forest floor (9 percent), dead trees (6 percent), and soils (50 percent). About half the biomass of a live tree (dry weight basis) is sequestered carbon (Woodall et al. 2011) - not the largest but the most dynamic source...

Publication Soil and stream chemistry relationships in high elevation waters
Published: 2016

High elevation watersheds in the southern Appalachian Mountains have unique soils and vegetation communities. They also receive greater inputs of acidic deposition as a result of increased precipitation compared to lower elevation sites.

Publication Achievable future conditions as a framework for guiding forest conservation and management
Published: 2016

We contend that traditional approaches to forest conservation and management will be inadequate given the predicted scale of social-economic and biophysical changes in the 21st century. New approaches, focused on anticipating and guiding ecological responses to change, are urgently needed to ensure the full value of forest ecosystem services for future generations. These...

Publication Contributing factors for drought in United States forest ecosystems under projected future climates and their uncertainty
Published: 2016

Observations of increasing global forest die-off related to drought are leading to more questions about potential increases in drought occurrence, severity, and ecological consequence in the future. Dry soils and warm temperatures interact to affect trees during drought; so understanding shifting risks requires some understanding of changes in both temperature and...

Publication Short-term stream water temperature observations permit rapid assessment of potential climate change impacts
Published: 2015

Assessment of potential climate change impacts on stream water temperature (T s ) across large scales remains challenging for resource managers because energy exchange processes between the atmosphere and the stream environment are complex and uncertain, and few long-term datasets are available to evaluate changes over time. In this study, we demonstrate how simple monthly...

Publication Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States
Published: 2015

Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United...

Publication Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest ecosystems
Published: 2015

The importance of the herbaceous layer in regulating ecosystem processes in deciduous forests is generally unknown. We use a manipulative study in a rich, mesophytic cove forest in the southern Appalachians to test the following hypotheses: (i) the herbaceous functional group (HFG) in mesophytic coves accelerates carbon and nutrient cycling, (ii) high litter quality input and...

Publication The global position of the U S forest products industry
Published: 2015

The United States share of global industrial roundwood production has declined since the 1990s. We reviewed data from 1961-2013 to evaluate the extent of this decline for industrial roundwood and derived secondary forest products compared to other major producing countries. We find that the U.S. global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28 percent in 1999 but then...

Publication Simulating vegetation controls on hurricane-induced shallow landslides with a distributed ecohydrological model
Published: 2015

The spatial distribution of shallow landslides in steep forested mountains is strongly controlled by aboveground and belowground biomass, including the distribution of root cohesion. While remote sensing of aboveground canopy properties is relatively advanced, estimating the spatial distribution of root cohesion at the forest landscape scale remains challenging. We utilize...

Publication From sink to source: Regional variation in U.S. forest carbon futures
Published: 2015

The sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C) in forests has partially offset C emissions in the United States (US) and might reduce overall costs of achieving emission targets, especially while transportation and energy sectors are transitioning to lower-carbon technologies. Using detailed forest inventory data for the conterminous US, we estimate forests current net...

Publication Forest biogeochemistry in response to drought
Published: 2015

Trees alter their use and allocation of nutrients in response to drought, and changes in soil nutrient cycling and trace gas flux (N2O and CH4) are observed when experimental drought is imposed on forests. In extreme droughts, trees are increasingly susceptible to attack by pests and pathogens, which can lead to major changes in nutrient flux to the soil. Extreme droughts...

Publication Forest processes [Chapter 3]
Published: 2014

Some of the changes to U.S. forests will be directly caused by the effects of an altered climate, such as increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) temperature (T), and nitrogen (N) deposition on tree growth, mortality, and regeneration. Other changes will be indirectly caused by climate-induced changes in disturbances, such as droughts, fire, insect outbreaks, pathogens,...

Publication Inferring the contribution of advection to total ecosystem scalar fluxes over a tall forest in complex terrain
Published: 2014

Multiple data streams from a new flux tower located in complex and heterogeneous terrain at theCoweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (North Carolina, USA) were integrated to identify periods of advectiveflow regimes. Drainage flows were expected a priori, due to the location of the measurement site at thebase of a long, gently-sloping valley. Drainage flow was confirmed by examining...

Publication Risk assessment [Chapter 9]
Published: 2014

What is "risk" in the context of climate change? How can a "risk-based framework" help assess the effects of climate change and develop adaptation priorities? Risk can be described by the likelihood of an impact occurring and the magnitude of the consequences of the impact (Yohe 2010) (Fig. 9.1). High-magnitude impacts are always risky, even if their probability of occurring...

Publication Summary of findings, management options, and interactions
Published: 2014

Forests in the Southern United States are likely to be very different in the coming decades as a result of climate change. Maintaining resilience and restoring forest ecosystems to ensure a continuing supply of ecosystem services will be a major challenge in the twenty-first century. Fortunately, most forests have inherent resistance and resilience to climatic variability and...

Publication Future wildfire trends, impacts, and mitigation options in the Southern United States
Published: 2014

Wildfire is among the most common forest disturbances, affecting the structure, composition, and functions of many ecosystems. The complex role that wildfire plays in shaping forests has been described in terms of vegetation responses, which are characterized as dependent on, sensitive to, independent of, or influenced by fire (Myers 2006). Fire is essential in areas where...

Publication A conceptual framework for adaptive forest management under climate change
Published: 2014

The consensus among most scientists is that the global climate is changing in response to a rapid increase in greenhouse gas emissions over the past 150 years. This perspective has prompted research on potential changes in future forest conditions so that management interventions might be developed to protect desired ecosystem services. Some of the most significant forest...

Publication Framing the future in the Southern United States climate, land use, and forest conditions
Published: 2014

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded, with 90% certainty, that human or anthropogenic activities (emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and pollution, landuse/ land-cover change) have altered global temperature patterns over the past 100-150 years (IPCC 2007a). Such temperature changes have a set of cascading, and sometimes amplifying, effects...

Publication Response and recovery of water yield and timing, stream sediment, abiotic parameters, and stream chemistry following logging
Published: 2014

Watershed ecosystem analysis provides a scientific approach to quantify and integrate resource responses to management (Hornbeck and Swank 1992) and also to address issues of resource sustainability (Christensen et. al. 1996). Philosophical components of the research approach at Coweeta are 1) the quantity, timing, and quality of streamflow provides an integrated measure of...

Publication Bridging the gap between ecosystem theory and forest watershed management
Published: 2014

The history of forests and logging in North America provides a back drop for our study of Watershed (WS) 7. Prior to European settlement, potentially commercial forests covered approximately 45% of North America, but not all of it was the pristine, ancient forest that some have imagined. Prior to 1492, Native Americans had extensive settlements throughout eastern North...

Publication Divergent phenological response to hydroclimate variability in forested mountain watersheds
Published: 2014

Mountain watersheds are primary sources of freshwater, carbon sequestration, and other ecosystem services. There is significant interest in the effects of climate change and variability on these processes over short to long time scales. Much of the impact of hydroclimate variability in forest ecosystems is manifested in vegetation dynamics in space and time. In steep terrain,...

Publication Flow Down! Can managing forests help maintain water supplies in the face of climate change?
Published: 2014

Climate change can have a direct and indirect impacts on water resources. Direct impacts of climate change can be seen by the presence of more extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include things like heat waves and droughts. Droughts have a direct impact on water and water supply. The indirect impacts of climate change on water resources relate to temperature and the...

Publication Herbaceous species composition and richness of mesophytic cove forests in the southern Appalachians: synthesis and knowledge gaps
Published: 2014

We synthesized the current information on mesophytic cove forests in the southern Appalachians, assessed the range of variation in herb species composition and diversity in stands with different disturbance histories and environmental conditions, identified key knowledge gaps, and suggested approaches to fill these knowledge gaps. The purpose of this synthesis was to provide...

Publication Changes to southern Appalachian water yield and stormflow after loss of a foundation species
Published: 2014

Few studies have examined how insect outbreaks affect landscape-level hydrologic processes. We report the hydrologic effects of the invasive, exotic hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) in a headwater catchment in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The study watershed experienced complete mortality of an evergreen tree species, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (eastern hemlock), after...

Publication Chapter 7: Managing Carbon
Published: 2014

Storing carbon (C) and offsetting carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions with the use of wood for energy, both of which slow emissions of CO 2 into the atmosphere, present significant challenges for forest management (IPCC 2001).

Publication The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research [Chapter 17]
Published: 2014

Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as classic paired watershed studies. The emergence of the concept...

Publication The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research
Published: 2014

Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as classic paired watershed studies. The emergence of the concept...

Publication Projecting potential adoption of genetically engineered freeze-tolerant eucalyptus in the United States
Published: 2014

Development of commercial Eucalyptus plantations has been limited in the United States because of the species sensitivity to freezing temperatures. Recently developed genetically engineered clones of a Eucalyptus hybrid, which confer freeze tolerance, could expand the range of commercial plantations. This study explores how freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus might be adopted as a...

Publication Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States
Published: 2014

The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and greater on water yield (Q). Analyses focused on two...

Publication Application of a distributed process-based hydrologic model to estimate the effects of forest road density on stormflows in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 2014

Managed forests have historically been linked to watershed protection and flood mitigation. Research indicates that forests can potentially minimize peak flows during storm events, yet the relationship between forests and flooding is complex. Forest roads, usually found in managed systems, can potentially magnify the effects of forest harvesting on water yields. The...

Publication Climate change adaptation and mitigation options a guide for natural resource managers in southern forest ecosystems
Published: 2014

The rapid pace of climate change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems present a pressing need for better scientific understanding and the development of new science-management partnerships. Understanding the effects of stressors and disturbances (including climatic variability), and developing and testing science-based management options to deal with them,...

Publication Introduction to climate change adaptation and mitigation management options
Published: 2014

Climate is a critical factor shaping the structure and function of forest ecosystems in the Southern United States. Human induced changes in climate systems have resulted in an increase in the global average air temperature of about 0.8 C since the 1900s (Pachuri and Reisinger 2007). Data from long-term weather stations show that overall, the continental United States has...

Publication Southern United States climate, land use, and forest conditions
Published: 2014

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded, with 90% certainty, that human or "anthropogenic" activities (emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and pollution, landuse/land-cover change) have altered global temperature patterns over the past 100-150 years (IPCC 2007a). Such temperature changes have a set of cascading, and sometimes amplifying, effects...

Publication Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest
Published: 2014

The importance of the herbaceous layer in regulating ecosystem processes in deciduous forests is generally unknown. We use a manipulative study in a rich, mesophytic cove forest in the southern Appalachians to test the following hypotheses: (i) the herbaceous functional group (HFG) in mesophytic coves accelerates carbon and nutrient cycling, (ii) high litter quality input and...

Publication An analysis of forest land use, forest land cover, and change at policy-relevant scales
Published: 2014

Quantifying the amount of forest and change in the amount of forest are key to ensure that appropriate management practices and policies are in place to maintain the array of ecosystem services provided by forests. There are a range of analytical techniques and data available to estimate these forest parameters, however, not all forest is the same and various components of...

Publication Hemlock woolly adelgid in the southern Appalachians: Control strategies, ecological impacts, and potential management responses
Published: 2013

Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annad; or HWA) is a non-native invasive pest that attacks and kills eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carri re) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). Hemlock is a foundation species due to its strong influence on ecosystem structure and function, especially in riparian areas. HWA management involves the integrated use...

Publication Forecasts of forest conditions in regions of the United States under future scenarios: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2012 RPA Assessment
Published: 2013

The 626 million acres of forests in the conterminous United States represent significant reserves of biodiversity and terrestrial carbon and provide substantial flows of highly valued ecosystem services, including timber products, watershed protection benefits, and recreation. This report describes forecasts of forest conditions for the conterminous United States in response...

Publication Modeling the effects of emerald ash borer on forest composition in the Midwest and Northeast United States
Published: 2013

The nonnative invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB) has caused considerable damage to the ash (Fraxinus spp.) resource in North America. While there are methods to mitigate, contain, control, or even eradicate some nonnative invasive insects, EAB continues to spread across North America. Considering strong evidence suggesting >99 percent probability...

Publication Influence of forest roads standards and networks on water yield as predicted by the distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model
Published: 2013

Throughout the country, foresters are continually looking at the effects of logging and forest roads on stream discharge and overall stream health. In the Pacific Northwest, a distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) has been used to predict the effects of logging on peak discharge in mountainous regions. DHSVM uses elevation, meteorological, vegetation, and soil...

Publication Interacting effects of wildfire severity and liming on nutrient cycling in a southern Appalachian wilderness area
Published: 2013

Aims Wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by large-scale disturbances (e.g., wildfire), air pollution, climate change, exotic diseases or pests, and a combination of these stress factors (i.e., stress complexes). Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is one example of a high elevation wilderness in the southern Appalachian region that has been subject to stress...

Publication Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests
Published: 2013

Infestation of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) has caused widespread mortality of this key canopy species throughout much of the southern Appalachian Mountains in the past decade. Because eastern hemlock is heavily concentrated in riparian habitats, maintains a dense canopy, and has an evergreen leaf habit, its...

Publication The Southern Forest Futures Project: technical report
Published: 2013

Please visit the Southern Forest Futures Project website for more information. The Southern Forest Futures Project provides a science-based futuring analysis of the forests of the 13 States of the Southeastern United States. With findings organized in a set of scenarios and using a combination of computer models and science synthesis, the authors of the Southern Forest...

Publication Design of the Southern Forest Futures Project
Published: 2013

The South has a unique human and landscape history and forests that reflect many episodes of change. Spanning the 13 States from Virginia to Texas, the South still contains a widely diverse complement of physical, economic, and ecological conditions; where forests and other native habitats play an important role not only in supporting diversity of native plants and animals but...

Publication Constructing alternative futures
Published: 2013

The desired product of the Southern Forest Futures Project is a mechanism that will help southerners think about and prepare for future changes in their forests and the benefits they provide. Because any single projection of the world s (or a region s) biological, physical, and social systems has a high probability of being incorrect, the Futures Project instead examines a...

Publication Forecasts of land uses
Published: 2013

Key Findings Between 30 million and 43 million acres of land in the South are forecasted to be developed for urban uses by 2060 from a base of 30 million acres in 1997. These forecasts are based on a continuation of historical development intensities. From 1997 to 2060, the South is forecasted to lose between 11 million acres (7 percent) and 23 million acres (13 percent)...

Publication Forecasts of forest conditions
Published: 2013

Key Findings Among the five forest management types, only planted pine is expected to increase in area. In 2010 planted pine comprised 19 percent of southern forests. By 2060, planted pine is forecasted to comprise somewhere between 24 and 36 percent of forest area. Although predicted rates of change vary, all forecasts reveal that land use changes and conversion to pine...

Publication Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests
Published: 2013

Key Findings Private landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals. Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more. Two-thirds of family forest land is owned by people who have...

Publication Markets
Published: 2013

Key Findings Although timber production in the South more than doubled from the 1960s to the late 1990s, output levels have declined over the last 10 years, signaling structural changes in timber markets. For softwood products, production declines are most clearly related to demand issues. Demand for softwood solid wood products is strongly linked to housing markets, and a...

Publication Forest biomass-based energy
Published: 2013

Key Findings Harvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels. Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of uncertainty given the interplay between...

Publication Forests and water
Published: 2013

Key Findings Forest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial. Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest conversion. If the conversion is to an urban...

Publication Effects of future sulfate and nitrate deposition scenarios on Linville Gorge and Shining Rock Wildernesses
Published: 2013

We used the Nutrient Cycling Model (NuCM) to simulate the effects of various sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition scenarios on wilderness areas in Western North Carolina. Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) and Shining Rock Wilderness (SRW) were chosen because they are high elevation acidic cove forests and are located on geologic parent material known to be low in base cations...

Publication Eddy covariance measurements with a new fast-response, enclosed-path analyzer: Spectral characteristics and cross-system comparisons
Published: 2013

A new class of enclosed path gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance applications combines the advantages of traditional closed-path systems (small density corrections, good performance in poor weather) and open-path systems (good spectral response, low power requirements), and permits estimates of instantaneous gas mixing ratio. Here, the extent to which these advantages...

Publication Imidacloprid movement in soils and impacts on soil microarthropods in southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands
Published: 2012

Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide effective in controlling the exotic pest Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees. Concerns over imidacloprid impacts on nontarget species have limited its application in southern Appalachian ecosystems. We quantified the movement and adsorption of imidacloprid in forest soils after soil...

Publication Restoration of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) - hardwood ecosystems severely impacted by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis)
Published: 2012

In the Southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern USA, pine-hardwood ecosystems have been severely impacted by the interactions of past land use, fire exclusion, drought, and southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis). We examined the effects of restoration treatments: burn only (BURN); cut + burn on dry sites (DC + B); cut + burn on sub-mesic sites (MC + B); and...

Publication Ecosystem processes and human influences regulate streamflow response to climate change at long-term ecological research sites
Published: 2012

Analyses of long-term records at 35 headwater basins in the United States and Canada indicate that climate change effects on streamflow are not as clear as might be expected, perhaps because of ecosystem processes and human influences. Evapotranspiration was higher than was predicted by temperature in water-surplus ecosystems and lower than was predicted in water-deficit...

Publication Legacy effects in material flux: structural catchment changes predate long-term studies
Published: 2012

Legacy effects of past land use and disturbance are increasingly recognized, yet consistent definitions of and criteria for defining them do not exist. To address this gap in biological- and ecosystem-assessment frameworks, we propose a general metric for evaluating potential legacy effects, which are computed by normalizing altered system function persistence with duration of...

Publication Geographic considerations for fire management in the Eastern United States: geomorphology and topography, soils, and climate
Published: 2012

Across the Eastern United States, there is on average an estimated 36 MT ha 1 (16 tons ac 1 ) of dead woody fuel (Chojnacky and others 2004). Variations in fuel type, size, and flammability make the selection of treatment options critical for effective fuels management. The region is a complex landscape characterized by highly fragmented forests, large areas of...

Publication The human context: Land ownership, resource uses, and social dynamics
Published: 2012

The forests and grasslands of the Eastern United States have been subject to more than two centuries of episodic change, generally characterized by forest clearing, agricultural use, abandonment, reforestation, and recovery. Today, rapid colonization of forests and other rural lands by people, the spread of many floral and faunal nonnative invasive species and, in some places,...

Publication Age and distribution of an evergreen clonal shrub in the Coweeta basin: Rhododendron maximum L
Published: 2012

Rhododendron maximum L. is an evergreen, clonal shrub that forms a dominant sub-canopy layer and is a key species in southern Appalachian forests. We investigated the age and distribution of R. maximum across the Coweeta Basin, a 1626 ha watershed in western North Carolina. We selected 16 perennial, second-order streams and used a Global Positioning System to establish site...

Publication Ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: mapping and modeling ecohydrological controls
Published: 2012

Mountain watersheds are sources of a set of valuable ecosystem services as well as potential hazards. The former include high quality freshwater, carbon sequestration, nutrient retention, and biodiversity, whereas the latter include flash floods, landslides and forest fires. Each of these ecosystem services and hazards represents different elements of the integrated and...

Publication Ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: hydrologic vegetation gradient as an indicator for lateral hydrologic connectivity of headwater catchments
Published: 2012

Lateral water flow in catchments can produce important patterns in water and nutrient fluxes and stores and also influences the long-term spatial development of forest ecosystems. Specifically, patterns of vegetation type and density along hydrologic flow paths can represent a signal of the redistribution of water and nitrogen mediated by lateral hydrologic flow. This study...

Publication Can forest watershed management mitigate climate change effects on water resources
Published: 2012

Long-term hydrology and climate data from United States Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFR) provide critical information on the interactions among climate, streamflow, and forest management practices. We examined the relationships among streamflow responses to climate variation and forest management using long-term data. Analysis of climate data from a subset...

Publication Long-term temperature and precipitation trends at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, North Carolina, USA
Published: 2012

Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, located in western North Carolina, USA, is a 2,185 ha basin wherein forest climate monitoring and watershed experimentation began in the early 1930s. An extensive climate and hydrologic network has facilitated research for over 75 years. Our objectives in this paper were to describe the monitoring network, present long-term air temperature and...

Publication The Southern Forest Futures Project: summary report
Published: 2012

The Southern Forest Futures Project provides a science-based futuring analysis of the forests of the 13 States of the Southeastern United States. With findings organized in a set of scenarios and using a combination of computer models and science synthesis, the authors of the Southern Forest Futures Project examine a variety of possible futures that could shape forests and...

Publication Effects of climatic variability and change on forest ecosystems: a comprehensive science synthesis for the U.S
Published: 2012

This report is a scientific assessment of the current condition and likely future condition of forest resources in the United States relative to climatic variability and change. It serves as the U.S. Forest Service forest sector technical report for the National Climate Assessment and includes descriptions of key regional issues and examples of a risk-based framework for...

Publication Introduction
Published: 2012

Projected changes in climate (temperature and precipitation means and extreme events), increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and increased nitrogen deposition are likely to affect U.S. forests throughout this century. Effects will be both direct (e.g., effects of elevated CO 2 on forest growth and water use) and indirect (e.g., altered disturbance regimes), and will...

Publication Effects of climatic variability and change
Published: 2012

Climate profoundly shapes forests. Forest species composition, productivity, availability of goods and services, disturbance regimes, and location on the landscape are all regulated by climate. Much research attention has focused on the problem of projecting the response of forests to changing climate, elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations, and nitrogen...

Publication Climate change, human communities, and forests in rural, urban, and wildland-urban interface environments
Published: 2012

Human concerns about the effects of climate change on forests are related to the values that forests provide to human populations, that is, to the effects on ecosystem services derived from forests. Service values include the consumption of timber products, the regulation of climate and water quality, and aesthetic and spiritual values. Effects of climate change on ecological...

Publication Adaptation and mitigation
Published: 2012

Forest ecosystems respond to natural climatic variability and human-caused climate change in ways that are adverse as well as beneficial to the biophysical environment and to society. Adaptation refers to responses or adjustments made whether passive, reactive, or anticipatory to climatic variability and change (Carter et al. 1994). Many adjustments occur whether humans...

Publication Improving scientific knowledge
Published: 2012

Scientific literature on the effects of climatic variability and change on forest ecosystems has increased significantly over the past decade, providing a foundation for establishing forest-climate relationships and projecting the effects of continued warming on a wide range of forest resources and ecosystem services. In addition, certainty about the nature of some of these...

Publication Conclusions
Published: 2012

Forest ecosystems in the United States in the year 2100 will differ from those of today as a result of a changing climate. Those differences will be superimposed on the human imprint of forest management and the legacies of other land use activities, stressors, and disturbances of the 19th and 20th centuries. Future changes in forest ecosystems will occur across both public...

Publication Emerald ash borer modeling methods for future forest projections
Published: 2012

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB) is a nonnative invasive insect that has caused considerable damage to ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Unlike invasive organisms that can be mitigated, contained, controlled, or even eradicated, EAB continues to spread across North America. The loss of the North American ash resource is possible considering...

Publication Effects of wildfires and liming of pine-oak-heath communities in the Linville Gorge Wilderness, western North Carolina
Published: 2012

Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is a Class I area in the southern Appalachian Mountains, western North Carolina. Over the last 150 years, LGW has been subject to several wildfires, varying in intensity and extent (Newell and Peet 1995). In November 2000, a wildfire burned 4000 ha in the wilderness; the fire ranged in severity across the northern portion of the wilderness from...

Publication Alterations on flow variability due to converting hardwood forests to pine
Published: 2012

Flow variability is a potential indicator of land use impacts on aquatic ecosystems and a dominating factor for lotic habitats. Vegetation management effects on the stream habitat conditions must be better understood to propose forest management activities that are compatible with general ecosystem management objectives (integrity, diversity, sustainability, etc.). In our...

Publication Response of hydrology to climate change in the southern Appalachian mountains using Bayesian inference
Published: 2012

Predicting long-term consequences of climate change on hydrologic processes has been limited due to the needs to accommodate the uncertainties in hydrological measurements for calibration, and to account for the uncertainties in the models that would ingest those calibrations and uncertainties in climate predictions as basis for hydrological predictions. We implemented a...

Publication US Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges Network: a continental research platform for catchment-scale research
Published: 2012

The US Forest Service initiated its catchment research program in 1909 with the first paired catchment study at Wagon Wheel Gap, Colorado, USA. It has since developed the Experimental Forests and Ranges Network, with over 80 long-term research study sites located across the contiguous USA, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. This network provides a unique, powerful continental...

Publication Can forest watershed management mitigate climate change impacts on water resources?
Published: 2012

Long-term hydrology and climate data from United States Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFR) provide critical information on the interactions among climate, streamflow, and forest management practices. We examined the relationships among streamflow responses to climate variation and forest management using long-term data. Analysis of climate data from a subset...

Publication Impact of Imidacloprid for control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate asseblages.
Published: 2011

Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide that acts on the nervous system, is currently being used to control hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), which is damaging hemlock trees. The objective of this study was to determine whether soil injection with imidacloprid for hemlock woolly adelgid control near streams adversely affects aquatic invertebrates. Eastern hemlocks...

Publication Topography-mediated controls on local vegetation phenology estimated from MODIS vegetation index
Published: 2011

Forest canopy phenology is an important constraint on annual water and carbon budgets, and responds to regional interannual climate variation. In steep terrain, there are complex spatial variations in phenology due to topographic influences on microclimate, community composition, and available soil moisture. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns of phenology in humid...

Publication Forest ecohydrological research in the 21st century: what are the critical needs?
Published: 2011

Modern ecohydrologic science will be critical for providing the best information to policy makers and society to address water resource challenges in the 21st century. Implicitly, ecohydrology involves understanding both the functional interactions among vegetation, soils, and hydrologic processes at multiple scales and the linkages among upland, riparian, and aquatic...

Publication Preface. Forest ecohydrological processes in a changing environment.
Published: 2011

The papers in this issue are a selection of the presentations made at the second International Conference on Forests and Water in a Changing Environment. This special issue Forest Ecohydrological Processes in a Changing Environment covers the topics regarding the effects of forest, land use and climate changes on ecohydrological processes across forest stand, watershed and...

Publication Early successional forest habitats and water resources
Published: 2011

Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10 20%, generally do not contribute to downstream...

Publication Can forest management be used to sustain water-based ecosystem service in the face of climate change?
Published: 2011

Forested watersheds, an important provider of ecosystems services related to water supply, can have their structure, function, and resulting streamflow substantially altered by land use and land cover. Using a retrospective analysis and synthesis of long-term climate and streamflow data (75 years) from six watersheds differing in management histories we explored whether...

Publication Hemlock infestation and mortality: impacts on nutrient pools and cycling in Appalachian forests
Published: 2011

Eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carri re] trees serve an important ecological role in riparian ecosystems in the southern Appalachians. Significant hemlock mortality is occurring due to infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand), a non-native invasive pest. Our objective was to quantify the impacts of HWA and hemlock mortality on nutrient...

Publication Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle
Published: 2011

This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products consumers. Thus,...

Publication Forecasts of county-level land uses under three future scenarios: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment
Published: 2011

Accurately forecasting future forest conditions and the implications for ecosystem services depends on understanding land use dynamics. In support of the 2010 Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment, we forecast changes in land uses for the coterminous United States in response to three scenarios. Our land use models forecast urbanization in response to the...

Publication U.S. forest products module : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment
Published: 2011

The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) is a partial market equilibrium model of the U.S. forest sector that operates within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) to provide long-range timber market projections in relation to global economic scenarios. USFPM was designed specifically for the 2010 RPA forest assessment, but it is being used also in other applications. Within...

Publication Modeling potential evapotranspiration of two forested watersheds in the southern Appalachians
Published: 2011

Global climate change has direct impacts on watershed hydrology through altering evapotranspiration (ET) processes at multiple scales. There are many methods to estimate forest ET with models, but the most practical and the most popular one is the potential ET (PET) based method. However, the choice of PET methods for AET estimation remains challenging. This study explored...

Publication Forest dynamics following eastern hemlock mortality in the southern Appalachians
Published: 2011

Understanding changes in community composition caused by invasive species is critical for predicting effects on ecosystem function, particularly when the invasive threatens a foundation species. Here we focus on dynamics of forest structure, composition and microclimate, and how these interact in southern Appalachian riparian forests following invasion by hemlock woolly...

Publication Long-term forest management and climate effects on streamflow
Published: 2011

Long-term watershed studies are a powerful tool for examining interactions among management activities, streamflow, and climatic variability. Understanding these interactions is critical for exploring the potential of forest management to adapt to or mitigate against the effects of climate change. The Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, located in North Carolina, USA, is a 2,185-...

Publication Ten-year responses of oak regeneration to prescribed fire
Published: 2011

Prescribed fire has proven effective in controlling vegetative competition of oak regeneration across many sites in the southeastern US most fire investigations have been performed in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Land managers lake definitive knowledge on how to use prescribed fire to improve long-term oak regeneration success in the southern Appalachians. Several...

Publication Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region
Published: 2011

This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest Assessment System...

Publication Chapter 13: Water and Forests
Published: 2011

Forest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial. Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest conversion. If the conversion is to an urban use, the resulting...

Publication Conversion to pine: Changes in timing and magnitude of high and low flows.
Published: 2011

Understanding watershed responses to extreme events is important for assessing potential impacts of floods, droughts, episodic pollution, and other external driving variables on watershed resources. In this study, we combine trend and frequency analyses with paired watershed techniques to evaluate the long-term high- and low-flow data from Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in...

Publication Terrain and landform influence on Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere (Eastern Hemlock) distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains
Published: 2010

We examined the relationships between hemlock distribution and abundance and terrain attributes for the Coweeta Basin in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Field measurements were combined with GIS mapping methods to develop predictive models of abundance and distribution of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere (eastern hemlock) and evaluate the co-occurrence of Rhododendron...

Publication Xylem transport models optimize effectiveness of systemic insecticide applications for controlling hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)
Published: 2010

The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) is causing widespread decline and mortality of eastern hemlock trees (Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carr.). Stem injection of insecticide is widely used as a control measure, but its effectiveness depends on individual tree hydraulic characteristics. Recent work has shown that eastern hemlock daily water use is exponentially...

Publication Short-term effects of prescribed fire on mixed oak forests in the southern Appalachians: vegetation response
Published: 2010

We examined vegetation responses to prescribed fire on three mixed-oak sites located in the Blue Ridge Physiographic province of the southern Appalachian Mountains: Alarka Laurel Branch (AL), Robin Branch (RB), and Roach Mill Branch (RM). Each of the study sites was within a sub-watershed that drained a first order stream. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate overstory...

Publication Long-term forest ecosystem research: a programmatic view
Published: 2010

Long-term research provides the building blocks of knowledge needed to address natural resource and environmental issues. "Long-term" has frequently been considered to span decades with a time frame that usually encompasses at least one generation of scientists and frequently two or more generations. In the rich history of forest science, the origin of long-term studies can be...

Publication Direct effects of temperature on forest nitrogen cycling revealed through analysis of long-term watershed records
Published: 2010

The microbial conversion of organic nitrogen (N) to plant available forms is a critical determinant of plant growth and carbon sequestration in forests worldwide. In temperate zones, microbial activity is coupled to variations in temperature, yet at the ecosystem level, microbial N mineralization seems to play a minor role in determining patterns of N loss. Rather, N losses...

Publication Quantifying structural and physiological controls on variation in canopy transpiration among planted pine and hardwood species in the southern Appalachians
Published: 2010

Recent studies have shown that planted pine stands exhibit higher evapotranspiration (ET) and are more sensitive to climatic conditions compared with hardwood stands. Whether this is due to management and stand effects, biological effects or their interaction is poorly understood. We estimated growing season canopy- and sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (Ec and EL) in...

Publication The contribution of the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory to developing and understanding of long-term (1934-2008) changes in managed and unmanaged forests
Published: 2010

Long-term records from USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges (EF&Rs) are exceptionally valuable scientific resources and common ground for research in natural resource management. Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Southern Appalachian Mountains in western North Carolina, is one of 82 EF&Rs located throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. Since its establishment...

Publication Flat Branch monitoring project: stream water temperature and sediment responses to forest cutting in the riparian zone
Published: 2010

Stream water protection during timber-harvesting activities is of primary interest to forest managers. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of riparian zone tree cutting on water temperature and total suspended solids. We monitored stream water temperature and total suspended solids before and after timber harvesting along a second-order tributary of the Coleman...

Publication An experimental test of well-described vegetation patterns across slope aspects using woodland herb transplants and manipulated abiotic drivers
Published: 2010

The ubiquitous transition of plant communities across slope aspects is a welldescribed, but rarely tested, ecological dynamic. Aspect position is often used as a proxy for microclimate changes in moisture, light and temperature, but these abiotic drivers are seldom decoupled and very rarely manipulated across slope aspects.
To investigate the mechanisms and demographic...

Publication The South's outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy and biofuels production
Published: 2010

The future of a wood-based biofuel/bioenergy sector could hold important implications for the use, structure and function of forested landscapes in the South. This paper examines a set of questions regarding the potential effects of biofuel developments both on markets for traditional timber products and on the provision of various non-timber ecosystem services. In addition,...

Publication Harvest choice and timber supply models for forest forecasting
Published: 2010

Timber supply has traditionally been modeled using aggregate data, whereas individual harvest choices have been shown to be sensitive to the vintage and condition of forest capital stocks. In this article, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products in a seven-state region of the US South directly from stand-level harvest choice models applied to detailed...

Publication Examining incentives for adjacent non-industrial private forest landowners to cooperate
Published: 2010

Individual landowners may capture non-timber benefits from both their own forested parcels and adjacent parcels owned by different landowners. These benefits may affect incentives for landowners to cooperate in their forest management decisions. Landowner survey data is used to examine incentives to cooperate concerning joint forest management and coordination of harvesting....

Publication Conversions of forest land: trends, determinants, projections, and policy considerations
Published: 2010

Forest land conversion leads to ecological effects (e.g., changes in water quality and wildlife habitat) and socioeconomic effects (e.g., expanding urban-forest interface, reduced long-term timber production possibilities and loss of open space). Socioeconomic drivers of land use change such as population totals and personal income levels have increased substantially since...

Publication Can structural and functional characteristics be used to identify riparian zone width in southern Appalachian headwater catchments?
Published: 2010

We characterized structural and functional attributes along hillslope gradients in headwater catchments. We endeavored to identify parameters that described significant transitions along the hillslope. On each of four catchments, we installed eight 50 m transects perpendicular to the stream. Structural attributes included woody and herbaceous vegetation; woody debris and...

Publication Assimilating multi-source uncertainties of a parsimonious conceptual hydrological model using hierarchical Bayesian modeling
Published: 2010

Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) modeling allows for multiple sources of uncertainty by factoring complex relationships into conditional distributions that can be used to draw inference and make predictions. We applied an HB model to estimate the parameters and state variables of a parsimonious hydrological model GR4J by coherently assimilating the uncertainties from the model,...

Publication The southern forest futures project: using public input to define the issues
Published: 2009

The Southern Forest Futures Project has been designed to evaluate the implications of potential futures for the many goods and services forests in the Southeastern United States provide. To ensure that the Futures Project is comprehensive and relevant, we have begun with a thorough scoping of issues using a process that elicits input from various interested publics. We have...

Publication Recovery of Nitrogen Pools and Processes in Degraded Riparian Zones in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 2009

Establishment of riparian buffers is an effective method for reducing nutrient input to streams. However, the underlying biogeochemical processes are not fully understood. The objective of this 4-yr study was to examine the effects of riparian zone restoration on soil N cycling mechanisms in a mountain pasture previously degraded by cattle. Soil inorganic N pools, fluxes, and...

Publication Topographic and ecological controls on root reinforcement
Published: 2009

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on...

Publication Topographic and ecologic controls on root reinforcement
Published: 2009

Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation models, information on...

Publication Pine regeneration following wildland fire
Published: 2009

Pine regeneration following wildland fire continues to be a serious problem across the western and southeastern U.S. Frequency of large wildfires has increased over the last several decades and restoration of these burned areas is a major problem confronting land managers. Prescribed fires are used primarily to reduce heavy fuel loads and secondarily to reduce competition or...

Publication Growing season temperatures limit growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings across a wide geographic transect.
Published: 2009

We grew potted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings from a single provenance under well watered and fertilized conditions at four locations along a 610 km north south transect that spanned most of the species range to examine how differences in the above-ground environment would affect growth rate, biomass partitioning and gas exchange characteristics. Across the...

Publication Radiation use efficiency in adjacent hardwood and pine forests in the southern Appalachians
Published: 2009

The efficiency with which trees convert photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to biomass has been shown to be consistent within stands of an individual species, which is useful for estimating biomass production and carbon accumulation. However, radiation use efficiency ( ) has rarely been measured in mixed-species forests, and it is unclear how species diversity may...

Publication Recovery of nitrogen pools and processes in degraded riparian zones in the southern Appalachians
Published: 2009

Establishment of riparian buffers is an effective method for reducing nutrient input to streams. However, the underlying biogeochemical processes are not fully understood. The objective of this 4-yr study was to examine the effects of riparian zone restoration on soil N cycling mechanisms in a mountain pasture previously degraded by cattle. Soil inorganic N pools,...

Publication Effects of prescribed fire in mixed oak forests of the southern Appalachians: forest floor, soil, and soil solution nitrogen responses
Published: 2009

We examined nutrient cycling responses to prescribed fire on three sub-mesic, mixed-oak sites located in the Blue Ridge Physiographic province of the southern Appalachian Mountains : Alarka Laurel Branch (AL), Robin Branch (RB), and Roach Mill Branch (RM). Each study site was located within a sub-watershed that drained a first order stream. Our objective was to quantify the...

Publication Watershed evapotranspiration increased due to changes in vegetation composition and structure under a subtropical climate.
Published: 2009

Natural forests in southern China have been severely logged due to high human demand for timber, food, and fuels during the past century, but are recovering in the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate how vegetation cover changes in composition and structure affected the water budgets of a 9.6-km 2 Dakeng watershed located in a humid subtropical...

Publication Testing for change in structural elements of forest inventories
Published: 2009

In this article we develop a methodology to test for changes in the underlying relationships between measures of forest productivity (structural elements) and site characteristics, herein referred to as structural changes, using standard forest inventories. Changes in measures of forest growing stock volume and number of trees for both hardwood and softwood on forestland in...

Publication Linking stream and landscape trajectories in the southern Appalachians
Published: 2009

A proactive sampling strategy was designed and implemented in 2000 to document changes in streams whose catchment land uses were predicted to change over the next two decades due to increased building density. Diatoms, macroinvertebrates, fishes, suspended sediment, dissolved solids, and bed composition were measured at two reference sites and six sites where a socioeconomic...

Publication Building aggregate timber supply models from individual harvest choice
Published: 2009

Timber supply has traditionally been modelled using aggregate data. In this paper, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products for the US state of North Carolina from a stand-level harvest choice model applied to detailed forest inventory. The simulated elasticities of pulpwood supply are much lower than reported by previous studies. Cross price elasticities...

Publication Woolly bully: estimating the effect of an invasive insect on an area s water cycle
Published: 2009
Publication Long-term effects of high intensity prescribed fire on vegetation dynamics in the Wine Spring Creek Watershed, Western North Carolina, USA
Published: 2009

We examined the long-term effects of a prescribed fire in a southern Appalachian watershed in Nantahala National Forest, western North Carolina, USA. Fire was prescribed in 1995 on this site by forest managers to restore a degraded pine (Pinus spp.)-hardwood community, specifically to stimulate forage production, promote pine and oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration, and increase...

Publication Pine regeneration following wildland fire (P-53)
Published: 2008

Pine regeneration following wildland fire continues to be a serious problem across the western and southeastern U.S. Frequency of large wildfires has increased over the last several decades and restoration of these burned areas is a major problem confronting land managers. Prescribed fires are used primarily to reduce heavy fuel loads and secondarily to reduce competition or...

Publication Watershed evapotranspiration increased due to changes in vegetation composition and structure under a subtropical climate
Published: 2008

Natural forests in southern China have been severely logged due to high human demand for timber, food, and fuels during the past century, but are recovering in the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate how vegetation cover changes in composition and structure affected the water budgets of a 9.6-km 2 Dakeng watershed located in a humid subtropical...

Publication Pine regeneration following wildland fire
Published: 2008

Pine regeneration following wildland fire continues to be a serious problem across the western and southeastern U.S. Frequency of large wildfires has increased over the last several decades and restoration of these burned areas is a major problem confronting land managers. Prescribed fires are used primarily to reduce heavy fuel loads and secondarily to reduce competition or...

Publication Implications of groundwater hydrology to buffer design in the southeastern U.S.
Published: 2008

The objective of this study was to examine the hydrologic processes of shallow groundwater to better define and design forest riparian management zones in headwater streams of two contrasting terrains in the southeastern U.S. We employed two long-term experimental watersheds, WS80 (206 ha) and WS77 (151 ha) at the Santee Experimental Forests in South Carolina, and WS2 (12 h)...

Publication Hemlock declines rapidly with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation: impacts on the carbon cycle of the Southern Appalachian forests
Published: 2008

The recent infestation of southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands by hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is expected to have dramatic and lasting effects on forest structure and function. We studied the short-term changes to the carbon cycle in a mixed stand of hemlock and hardwoods, where hemlock was declining due to either girdling or HWA infestation. We expected that hemlock...

Publication Hydrologic processes of forested headwater watersheds across a physiographaic gradient in the southeastern United States
Published: 2008

Understanding the hydrologic processes is the first step in making sound watershed management decisions including designing Best Management Practices for nonpoint source pollution control. Over the past fifty years, various forest experimental watersheds have been instrumented across the Carolinas through collaborative studies among federal, state, and private organizations....

Publication Global Markets and the Health of American Forests: A Forest Service Perspective
Published: 2008

The United States is rich in forests, yet about 39% of the softwood lumber used by Americans in 2005 came from other countries (WWPA 2006). In fact, the United States has not been self-sufficient in lumber (with exports exceeding imports) for more than 40 years. According to Haynes et al. (2007), the trade deficit in lumber has grown from 4.1 billion board feet (bbf) in 1962...

Publication Estimating forest ecosystem evapotranspiration at multiple temporal scales with a dimension analysis approach
Published: 2008

It is critical that evapotranspiration (ET) be quantified accurately so that scientists can evaluate the effects of land management and global change on water availability, streamflow, nutrient and sediment loading, and ecosystem productivity in watersheds. The objective of this study was to derive a new semi-empirical ET modeled using a dimension analysis method that could be...

Publication Nitrogen deposition and cycling across an elevation and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian forests
Published: 2008

We studied nitrogen (N) cycling pools and processes across vegetation and elevation gradients in. the southern Appalachian Mountains in SE USA. Measurements included bulk deposition input, watershed export, throughfall fluxes, litterfall, soil N pools and processes, and soil solution N. N deposition increased with elevation and ranged from 9.5 to 12.4 kg ha -1 yr -1 . In all...

Publication Simulated effects of sulfur deposition on nutrient cycling in class I wilderness areas
Published: 2008

As a consequence of human land use, population growth, and industrialization, wilderness and other natural areas can be threatened by air pollution, climate change, and exotic diseases or pests. Air pollution in the form of acidic deposition is comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids and ammonium derived from emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia. These...

Publication Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr, mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems
Published: 2007

Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Throughout its range, eastern hemlock is facing potential widespread mortality from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). If HWA-induced eastern hemlock mortality alters hydrologic function, land managers will be challenged to develop...

Publication The U.S. South s timber sector in 2005: a prospective analysis of recent change
Published: 2007

Forest product markets are an important part of rural economies of the U.S. South, but recent changes in timber markets have raised questions about the future. Several factors have altered forest products markets since the late 1990s, including industry consolidations and associated changes in land ownership, changes in domestic consumption patterns and international trade...

Publication Fuels consumption and nitrogen loss following prescribed fire: a comparison of prescription types in the Southern appalachians
Published: 2007

Prescribed burning is frequently used as a tool for restoration of plant communities, wildlife habitat improvement, and site preparation. We compared and contrasted the effects of four burning prescriptions on forest floor and fine fuels consumption, and nitrogen loss. The burning treatments included dry (DU) and mesic (MU) understory burns, stand replacement (SR) burning,...

Publication Biotic and abiotic factors regulating forest floor CO2 flux across a range of forest age classes in the southern Appalachians
Published: 2007

We measured forest floor CO 2 flux in three age classes of forest in the southern Appalachians: 20-year-old, 85-year-old, and old-growth. Our objectives were to quantify differences in forest floor CO 2 flux among age classes, and determine the relative importance of abiotic and biotic driving variables. Forest floor CO 2 flux was measured using an openflow infrared gas...

Publication A comparison of sap flux-based evapotranspiration estimates with catchment-scale water balance
Published: 2007

Many researchers are using sap flux to estimate tree-level transpiration, and to scale to stand- and catchment-level transpiration; yet studies evaluating the comparability of sap flux-based estimates of transpiration (Et) with alternative methods for estimating Et at this spatial scale are rare. Our ability to accurately scale from the probe to the...

Publication Effects of restoration burns on macroinvertebrates in southern Appalachian pine-oak forests
Published: 2007

Cover board arrays were used to measure the relative abundance of macroinvertebrates and terrestrial salamanders on prescribed burn and control sites in xeric southern Appalachians of northern Georgia and southeastern Tennessee pine-oak forests. Three microsite variables were measured at each cover board: cover board moisture level, temperature under the cover board, and soil...

Publication Regulation of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in Southern Appalachian ecosystems: separating the relative importance of biotic vs. abiotic controls
Published: 2007

Long-term measurements of soil nitrogen (N) transformations along an environmental gradient within the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory basin in western North Carolina showed a strong seasonal pattern and suggested that vegetation community type through its influence on soil properties-was an important regulating factor. Our objective was to determine the relative effects of...

Publication Use of water by eastern hemlock: implications for systemic insecticide application
Published: 2007

The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) is causing widespread decline and mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) throughout most of the range of eastern hemlock. Stem injection of insecticide is widely used as a chemical control measure, but the effectiveness of this method depends on the hydraulic characteristics of individual trees. We...

Publication Wildfire, timber salvage, and the economics of expediency
Published: 2006

Administrative planning rules and legal challenges can have significant economic impacts on timber salvage programs on public lands. This paper examines the costs of the delay in salvage caused by planning rules and the costs associated with the volume reductions forced by legal challenges in one case study. The fires on the Bitterroot National Forest in the northern Rocky...

Publication Variation in streamwater quality in an Urban Headwater Stream in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 2006

We examined the influence of a forested landscape on the quality of water in a stream originating on an urban landscape and flowing through National Forest lands. Sample sites included an urban stream (URB), a site on the same stream but within a National Forest (FOR) and 2 km downstream from the URB site, and a small, undisturbed, forested reference tributary of the main...

Publication Estimating sediment yield in the southern Appalachians using WCS-SED
Published: 2006

We measured and modeled sediment yield over two months on five watersheds in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. These watersheds contained first and second-order streams and are primarily forested, but span the development gradient common in this region, with up to 10 percent in suburban and transitional development and up to 27% low-intensity agriculture....

Publication Fire effects on water quality: a synthesis of response regulating factors among contrasting ecosystems
Published: 2006

The key components of watershed processes are inputs in precipitation, interactions of vegetation, soil and water including evapotranspiration (water yield), overland flow (erosion), and storage and filtering (nutrients), and outputs in streamflow. Fire effects occur at the vegetation-soil interface and can result in altering overland flow and infiltration rate of water. Fire...

Publication Modeling hydrologic responses to deforestation/forestation and climate change at multiple scales in the Southern US and China
Published: 2006

Watershed management and restoration practices require a clear understanding of the basic eco-hydrologic processes and ecosystem responses to disturbances at multiple scales (Bruijnzeel, 2004; Scott et al., 2005). Worldwide century-long forest hydrologic research has documented that deforestation and forestation (i.e. reforestation and afforestation) can have variable impacts...

Publication Scale of harvesting by non-industrial private forest landowners
Published: 2006

We examine the intensity of harvesting decision by non-industrial landowners at the lowest price offer they deem acceptable, using a multiple bounded discrete choice stated preference approach that draws upon and connects two subfields of forestry, one identifying characteristics of landowners important to past harvesting or reforestation decisions, and another proposing how...

Publication Forest Ecosystem services and development pressures
Published: 2006

Ecosystem services from forests on private lands are often under-produced because landowners bear the cost of restoring, preserving, and managing their lands to produce ecological services that benefit all members of the community or larger society. Over the last two decades, a variety of federal and state programs have applied a combination of regulations, extension, and...

Publication Eastern hemlock transpiration: patterns, controls, and implications for its decline in southern Appalachian forests
Published: 2006

Eastern hemlock, a principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian mountains, is facing potential widespread mortality due to the hemlock adelgid (HWA). To estimate the impact that the loss of this species will have on forest transpiration (E 1 ) we quantified whole-tree (E c ) and leaf-level (E 1 ) transpiration over a range of tree sizes (9.5 - 67.5 cm...

Publication Using the hydrologic model mike she to assess disturbance impacts on watershed process and responses across the Southeastern U.S.
Published: 2006

A clear understanding of the basic hydrologic processes is needed to restore and manage watersheds across the diverse physiologic gradients in the Southeastern U.S. We evaluated a physically based, spatially distributed watershed hydrologic model called MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 to evaluate disturbance impacts on water use and yield across the region. Long-term forest hydrologic data...

Publication Future forestland area in the U.S. South
Published: 2006

The southeastern United States has been heavily transformed by various forms of resource exploitation. A review of historical data shows that net change in forest area has been minimal while much of the land in the region has experienced some change over time. Recent economic changes have accelerated urbanization in the region. Future forest area depends both on these...

Publication Potential water yield reduction due to forestation across China
Published: 2006

It is widely recognized that vegetation restoration will have positive effects on watershed health by reducing soil erosion and non-point source pollution, enhancing terrestrial and aquatic habitat, and increasing ecosystem carbon sequestration. However, the hydrologic consequences of forestation on degraded lands are not well studied in the forest hydrology community as a...

Publication Initial effects of prescribed fire on quality of soil solution and streamwater in the Southern Appalachian Mountains
Published: 2005

Prescribed burning is being used in the Conasauga River Watershed in southeastern Tennessee and northern Georgia by National Forest managers to restore degraded pine/oak communities. The purpose of these burns is to restore shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Miller)/mixed-oak forests with more diverse understories, which include native bluestem grasses (Andropogon gyrans Ashe and...

Publication Forest and water relationships: hydrologic implications of forestation campaigns in China
Published: 2005

Reforestation and afforestation (referred to forestation thereafter) campaigns in the past two decades have resulted in great increases in both forest land area and forest ecosystem productivity in China. Although the ecological benefits of forests are well accepted, the hydrologic consequences of man-made forests by forestation are unclear. Debate and confusion on the...

Publication Modeling the impacts of climate change, landuse change, and human population dynamics on water availability and demands in the Southeastern U.S.
Published: 2005

The objective of this study is to develop a method to fully budget annual water supply (Precipitation - Evapotranspiration (ET) + Groundwater supply + Return Flow) and water use from thermoelectric, irrigation, domestic, industry, livestock, minirig, and commercial uses at the regional scale. We used a generalized annual ET model that estimates water loss as a function of...

Publication Economic prospects and policy framework of forest biotechnology in the Southern U.S.A. and South America
Published: 2005

An economic framework is presented for analyzing forest biotechnology with a focus on the case of transgenic forest trees in the southeastern U.S., Uruguay, and South America. Prospective economic benefits of forest biotechnology could reach hundreds of millions of dollars per year, but greatly increased research expenditures will also be required to achieve this potential....

Publication Stream nitrogen responses to fire in the Southeastern U.S.
Published: 2005

Fire can play a significant role in runoff, sediment yield, and nitrate transport in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in the southeast US. The typical impact of fire is an immediate change in the physical properties of the soil and forest floor surface, followed by mid- and long-term changes in biological pools and cycling processes. Depending upon the severity of the fire...

Publication Community choices and housing demands: a spatial analysis of the southern Appalachian highlands
Published: 2005

This paper examines housing demand using an integrated approach that combines residential decisions about choices of community in the Southern Appalachian region with the application of a Geographic Information System (GIS). The empirical model infers a distinctive heterogeneity in the characteristics of community choices. The results also indicate that socio-economic motives...

Publication Forest and pasture carbon pools and soil respiration in the southern Appalachian mountains
Published: 2005

Our ability to estimate the changes in carbon (C) pools and fluxes due to forest conversion is hampered by a lack of comparative studies. We measured above- and belowground C pools and soil respiration flux at four forested and four pasture sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Above- and belowground C pools were significantly larger (P -1 C at the forested sites and...

Publication Restoration effects on N cycling pools and processes
Published: 2005

Over the past several years, there has been an acceleration of restoration efforts to mitigate the consequences (i.e., ground and surface water chemical pollutants, erosion, etc.) of degraded ecosystems and enhance structural and functional components of watershed ecosystems that regulate biogeochemical cycling and associated aquatic components. Biogeochemical processes are...

Publication Effects of understory prescribed burning on shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.)/mixed-hardwood forests
Published: 2005

We examined the effects of a single dormant season fire on overstory and understory species diversity and composition and tree seedling regeneration patterns the first and second years following a prescribed burn in the Conasauga River Watershed of southeastern Tennessee and northern Georgia. We asked: Can a single dormant season fire initiate a trajectory of overstory and...

Publication Long-Term Soil Responses to Site Preparation Burning in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 2004

The mixed oak-pine ecosystems in the southern Appalachians are in decline because of a combination of drought and southern pine-beetle infestation. A commonly applied prescription for restoration of these degraded sites has been to fell all vegetation, allow it to dry, and conduct a site-preparation burn. However, there is little information on the mid- and long-term...

Publication Characterizing Hysteretic Water Quality in Southern Appalachian Streams
Published: 2004

Water quality in mountain streams of the southern Appalachians varies seasonally and with storms. In an effort to validate Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for sediment in the Chattooga River Watershed (NE Georgia, NW South Carolina, and SW North Carolina), we studied four tributary streams over an eighteen-month period. Two of the streams had completely forested watersheds;...

Publication The speculative shadow over timberland values in the U.S. South
Published: 2004

In well-functioning markets, forestland prices capture a wealth of information regarding current as well as anticipated uses of land and resources contained on it. They reflect the valuation of current uses and incorporate information regarding productivity, standing timber capital, and the effects of taxes that apply to land and production. Land prices are speculative by...

Publication Determination of the Relative Uptake of Ground vs. Surface Water by Populus deltoides During Phytoremediation
Published: 2004

The use of plants to remediate polluted groundwater is becoming an attractive alternative to more expensive traditional techniques. In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of the phytoremediation treatment, a clear understanding of water-use habits by the selected plant species is essential. We examined the relative uptake of surface water (i.e., precipitation) vs....

Publication The southern forest resource assessment: What we learned
Published: 2004

The Southern Forest Resource Assessment was initiated in the spring of 1999 to address broad questions concerning the status, trends, and possible future of southern forests. The overall objective of the assessment was to develop a thorough and objective description of forest conditions and trends in the South, and to present it in a way that would help the public understand a...

Publication Ground water chlorinated ethenes in tree trunks: case studies, influence of recharge, and potential degradation mechanism
Published: 2004

Trichloroethene (TCE) was detected in cores of trees growing above TCE-contaminated ground at three sites: the Carswell Golf Course in Texas, Air Force Plant PJKS in Colorado, and Naval Weapons Station Charleston in South Carolina. This was true even when the depth to water was 7.9 m or when the contaminated aquifer was confined beneath ~3 m of clay. Additional ground water...

Publication Stand restoration burning in oak-pine forests in the southern Applachians: effects on aboveground biomass and carbon and nitrogen cycling
Published: 2004

Understory prescribed burning is being suggested as a viable management tool for restoring degraded oak pine forest communities in the southern Appalachians yet information is lacking on how this will affect ecosystem processes. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the watershed scale effects of understory burning on total aboveground biomass, and the carbon and...

Publication Evaluation of the effectiveness of riparian zone restoration in the southern Appalachians by assessing soil microbial populations
Published: 2004

Microbial biomass, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in surface soil (0-10 cm) were quantified in a riparian zone restoration project at Coweeta, North Carolina, USA. Four treatments are included in this study: ( I ) a degraded (+N) riparian zone with continued compaction, vegetation removal, and nutrient addition (mow, roll, and nutrient addition);(2) a degraded (-N) riparian zone...

Publication Defining conservation priorities using fragmentation forecasts
Published: 2004

Methods are developed for forecasting the effects of population and economic growth on the distribution of interior forest habitat. An application to the southeastern United States shows that models provide significant explanatory power with regard to the observed distribution of interior forest. Estimates for economic and biophysical variables are significant and consistent...

Publication Softwood lumber products in the United States: substitutes, complements, or unrelated?
Published: 2004

This study addresses an important dimension concerning the softwood lumber trade dispute between United States and Canada-substitutability among imported and domestically produced species. We employ the restricted translog subcost function approach to study this issue based on the monthly data of US softwood products consumption and prices between Jan. 1989 and July 2001. The...

Publication Timber market research, private forests, and policy rhetoric
Published: 2004

The development of the profession and practice of forestry in the United States can be linked to urgent concerns regarding timber shortages in the late 19th century (Williams 1989). These were based largely on perceived failures of forest landowners to protect or invest enough in the productive capacity of their forests (Manthy 1977). The South, as the only major...

Publication Effects of Understory Burning in a Mesic Mixed-Oak Forest of the Southern Appalachians
Published: 2004

Information is lacking on ecosystem effects of understory burning in mesic mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests of the southern Appalachians. Native Americans used periodic fires in these forests for driving game and opening the forest. In April 1998, we conducted a low- to moderate-intensity fire in a covehardwood forest in the Nantahala National Forest, western North Carolina....

Publication Federal timber restrictions, interregional spillovers, and the impact on US softwood markets
Published: 2004

An econometric model of the US softwood lumber and timber markets is estimated and used to simulate the price, trade, and welfare effects of reductions in federal timber sales in the western US commencing in the late 1980s. Results indicate that the timber sale reductions increased lumber prices by roughly 15 percent in the mid-1990s. Lumber consumers were the unambiguous...

Publication Aggregate Timber Supply: From the Forest to the Market
Published: 2003

Timber supply modeling is a means of formalizing the production behavior of heterogeneous landowners managing a wide variety of forest types and vintages within a region. The critical challenge of timber supply modeling is constructing theoretically valid and empirically practical aggregate descriptions of harvest behavior. Understanding timber supply is essential for...

Publication Collaborative Research and Watershed Management for Optimization of Forest Road Best Management Practices
Published: 2003

The Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, USFS Southern Research Station, worked with state and local agencies and various organizations to provide guidance and tools to reduce sedimentation and facilitate restoration of the 1900km 2 Conasauga River watershed in northern Georgia and southern Tennessee. The Conasauga River has the most diverse aquatic ecosystem of any river in the...

Publication Drought impacts on tree growth and mortality of southern Appalachian forests
Published: 2003

The Coweeta LTER Program represents the eastern deciduous forests of the southem Appalachian Mountains in the United States. Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory was established in 1934 and hence has a long record of climate measurement and vegetation response to both natural and human disturbance (Swank and Crossley 1988). The general climate of the area is classified as marine...

Publication Differences in Surface Water Quality Draining Four Road Surface Types in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 2003

Improved and unimproved roads can be the primary source of stream sediment in forested watersheds. We assessed differences in production of total suspended solids (TSS; ppm) from four road sulfate conditions in a Southern Appalachian watershed: (1) a 2-yr-old paved surface (P), (2) an improved gravel sulfate with controlled drainage and routine maintenance (RG), (3) an...

Publication Assessing the south's forests
Published: 2003

The Southern Forest Resource Assessment (SFRA) was initiated in the Spring of 1999 to address broad questions concerning the status, trends and potential future of southern forests. The southern offices of the USDA Forest Service, U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency, U.S. Fish and wildlife Service, and Tennessee Valley Authority charactered SFRA and it has been conducted in...

Publication Decisions Nonindustrial Forest Landowners Make: An Empirical Examination
Published: 2003

Our purpose is to estimate a model of non-industrial forest landowner behavior that considers certain types of behavior that have escaped discussion and rigorous investigation in the literature, yet which are critical to future policy making. Our focus on the many different but related decisions landowners make broadens the typical understanding of landowner behavior to show...

Publication Stream Nitrate Response to Different Burning Treatments in Southern Appalachian Forests
Published: 2003

Southern Appalachian forests are undergoing considerable change due to altered disturbance regimes. For example, fire exclusion has had a major impact on the structure and function of pine-hardwood ecosystems. Recently, fire has been prescribed for a variety of applications: 1) stand-replacement in the form of a mimicked wildfire, 2) site-preparation as part of a fell-and-burn...

Publication Impacts of Second Home Development on Housing Prices in the Southern Appalachian Highlands
Published: 2003

This study estimates the value of socioeconomic, spatial and environmental attributes on housing prices of both urban and rural communities in the primary and second home areas of the Southern Appalachian Highlands, using the hedonic property price model. Distance and environmental attributes are valued more heavily in the rural communities of the second home area than in the...

Publication Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA)
Published: 2003

Understanding the implications of past. present and future patterns of human land use for biodiversity and ecosystem function is increasingly important in landscape ecology. We examined effects of land-use change on four major forest communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), addressed two questions: (1) Are and forest communities differentially susceptible to...

Publication Public Timber Supply under Multiple-Use Management
Published: 2003

In many parts of the world, substantial shares of timber inventories are managed by government agencies. The objective of this chapter is to examine the potential influence of public timber production on market structure as well as on prices, harvest quantities, and economic welfare. National forest management in the United States is used as a tractable case study, but...

Publication International Trade In Forest Products
Published: 2003

The 21 st century continues a trend of rapid growth in both international trade of forest products and a concern for forests. These two trends are connected. Forces causing trade growth are linked to the loss of native forest resources in some countries and the accumulation of nonnative forest resources in other countries. Factors increasing trade include relaxation of trade...

Publication Assessing the Impact of Trade Policy and Technology Changes in the U.S. Forestry Sectors
Published: 2002

Increased trade liberalization and globalization of financial markets are influencing both the demand for and supply of forest products in the U.S. Meanwhile, more innovations are introduced into the U.S. forestry sectors to meet the growing demands for forest products. Since the U.S. is the largest producer and consumer of forest products in the world, these changes are...

Publication Nitrogen trace gas emissions from a riparian ecosystem in southern Appalachia
Published: 2002

In this paper, we present two years of seasonal nitric oxide (NO), ammonia (NH 3 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average NO, NH 3 , and N 2 O fluxes were 5.8, 2.0, and 76.7 m -2 s -1 (1.83,0.63, and 24.19 kg N ha...

Publication Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary of Findings
Published: 2002

The Southern Forest Resource Assessment (SFRA) was initiated in spring 1999 to address broad questions concerning the status, trends, and likely future of southern forests. A descriptive assessment such as SFRA can be used to highlight the major dynamics and uncertainties at play within a region's forested ecosystems, thereby focusing public discourse. Because SFRA has only...

Publication Growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) related to forest floor consumption by prescribed fire in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 2002

Chainsaw felling, burning, and planting of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) have been prescribed on degraded pine/hardwood stands in the Southern Appalachians to improve overstory composition and productivity. The desired future condition of the overstory is a productive pine/hardwood mixture, with white pine, which is resistant to southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus...

Publication The dynamic nature of sediment and organic constituents in TSS
Published: 2002

The Chattooga River Watershed, located in NE Georgia, NW South Carolina, and SW North Carolina, contains some of the most scenic and valuable water resources in the region. The Chattooga River is designated as a wild and scenic river and serves as the headwaters for water supplied to numerous cities. The mix of public and private lands presents considerable challenges to...

Publication The Bottomland Hardwoods of the Hatchie River, The Only Unchannelized Mississippi Tributary
Published: 2002

Documenting the natural condition of the floodplain forests of Mississippi River tributaries becomes ever more elusive as cultural alterations continue to obscure their "original" character. The 4,532 hectare Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge (HNWR) in West Tennessee provides the best-available opportunity to document the floodplain forests that once flourished along the major...

Publication Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods
Published: 2002

Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO 2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO 2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO 2 traps; a multichamber open dynamic system (OC) with an infrared gas analyzer; and a...

Publication Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Technical Report
Published: 2002

The southern forest resource assessment provides a comprehensive analysis of the history, status, and likely future of forests in the Southern United States. Twenty-three chapters address questions regarding social/economic systems, terrestrial ecosystems, water and aquatic ecosystems, forest health, and timber management; 2 additional chapters provide a background on history...

Publication Seasonal respiration of foliage, fine roots, and woody tissues in relation to growth, tissue N, and photosynthesis
Published: 2002

Autotrophic respiration may regulate how ecosystem productivity responds to changes in temperature, atmospheric [CO 2 ], and N deposition. Estimates of autotrophic respiration are difficult for forest ecosystems, because of the large amount of biomass, different metabolic rates among tissues, and seasonal variation in respiration rates. We examined spatial and seasonal...

Publication Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary Report
Published: 2002

The Southern Forest Resource Assessment was initiated in 1999 as a result of concerns raised by natural resource managers, the science community, and the public regarding the status and likely future of forests in the South. These included changes to the region s forests brought about by rapid urbanization, increasing timber demand, increasing numbers of satellite chip mills,...

Publication Forest Road Erosion, Sediment Transport, and Model Validation in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 2002

Abstract: The Conasauga River Watershed, located in northern Georgia and southern Tennessee, has one of the most diverse aquatic ecosystems in this region and is currently being considered for designation as a wild and scenic river. The Conasauga River also serves as a major source of drinking water for numerous large cities. Due to the close proximity with the cities of...

Publication Southern forest resource assessment: Conducting science in the public eye
Published: 2002

Questions about the long-term sustainability of southern forest benefits, including wildlife habitat, water quality, and timber supply, prompted this regional assessment and guided the process by which it was conducted. SFRA s final report is descriptive not prescriptive and is intended to inform debate and policymaking in technically defensible, unbiased, and understandable...

Publication Land Allocation in the Southeastern U.S. in Response to Climate Change Impacts on Forestry and Agriculture
Published: 2001

Forest and agriculture are the two dominant land uses in the Southeastern U.S., collectively accounting for almost 90 percent of the land base. Differences in climate change impacts on forest and agricultural productivity can lead to reallocations of land between the two sectors as landowners adjust to the changes in economic conditions. In this paper, we apply the impacts of...

Publication Meeting global policy commitments: carbon sequestration and southern pine forests
Published: 2001
Publication Carbon sequestration and southern pine forests
Published: 2001

In managed forests, the amount of carbon further sequestered will be determined by (1) the increased amount of carbon in standing biomass (resulting from land-use changes and increased productivity); (2) the amount of recalcitrant carbon remaining below ground at the end of rotations; and (3) the amount of carbon sequestered in products created from harvested wood. Because of...

Publication Long-term nitrogen dynamics of Coweeta forested watersheds in the southeastern United States of America
Published: 2001

We analyzed long-term (23 years) data of inorganic N deposition and loss for an extensive network of mature mixed hardwood covered watersheds in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina to assess trends and dynamics of N in baseline ecosystems. We also assessed watershed N saturation in the context of altered N cycles and stream inorganic N responses associated with...

Publication Ecological forecasts: An emerging imperative
Published: 2001

Planning and decision-making can be improved by access to reliable forecasts of ecosystem state, ecosystem services, and natural capital. Availability of new data sets, together with progress in computation and statistics, will increase our ability to forecast ecosystem change. An agenda that would lead toward a capacity to produce, evaluate, and communicate forecasts of...

Publication Forest Productivity, Leaf Area, and Terrain in Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forests
Published: 2000

Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural characteristic of forest ecosystems which has been shown to be strongly related to forest mass and energy cycles and forest productivity. LAI is more easily measured than forest productivity, and so a strong relationship between LAI and productivity would be a valuable tool in forest management. While a linear relationship has...

Publication Using Resource Economics to Anticipate Forest Land Use Change in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region
Published: 2000

Demands for forest, farm, and developed land are evolving in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The demand for land in developed uses, as well as demands for various forest and farm products are changing in response to population growth, demographic shifts, and market forces. As demand factors change so do relative land values. Land area in future forest, farm, and developed...

Publication Linking harvest choices to timber supply
Published: 2000

Aggregate timber supply by ownership was investigated for a small region by applying stand-level harvest choice models to a representative sample of stands and then aggregating to regional totals using the area-frame of the forest survey. Timber harvest choices were estimated as probit models for three ownership categories in coastal plain southern pine stands of North...

Publication Leaf water relations and sapflow in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees planted for phytoremediation of a groundwater pollutant
Published: 2000

Plants that remediate groundwater pollutants may offer a feasible alternative to the traditional and more expensive practices. Because its success depends on water use, this approach requires a complete understanding of species-specific transpiration patterns. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify tree and stand-level transpiration in two age classes (whips and...

Publication Perspectives on using prescribed fire to achieve desired ecosystem conditions
Published: 2000

Fire is a potentially powerful tool for achieving desired conditions of forest ecosystems. From an ecological perspective, the use of fire requires affirmative answers to either of the following questions: (1) does it increase ecosystem health and sustainability? and (2) does it preserve or restore unique species or habitats? Health and sustainability can be measured and...

Publication Plant succession and community restoration following felling and burning in the Southern Appalachian Mountains
Published: 2000

Recent declines in the yellow pine component of pine-hardwood stands in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has prompted managers to increase the use of fire as a silvicultural tool. The fell and burn treatment is designed to remove competing vegetation (hardwoods and mountain laurel [Kalmia latifolia]) to ensure successful establishment of planted eastern white pine (Pinus...

Publication Responsiveness of Rural and Urban Land Uses to Land Rent Determinants in the U.S. South
Published: 2000

Ricardian and von Th nen land rent models are combined into a single land use shore model including farm, forest, and urban lurid uses. The lurid share model is applied to the Southern United States, and elasticities are extracted that measure land share response to changes in iqulation, income, land values, prices, and costs in counties with different degrees of...

Publication Fine root respiration in mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in situ: the importance of CO2 in controlled environments.
Published: 1999

Clinton and Vose measured seasonal fine root respiration rate in situ while controlling chamber temperature and [CO 2 ]. Atmospheric and [CO 2 ] ([CO 2 ] a ) and measured soil [CO 2 ] ([CO 2 ] s ) were alternately delivered to a cuvette containing intact fine roots of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Respiration rates were consistently higher in [CO 2 ] [CO 2 ] a than...

Publication Foliar Temperature-Respiration Response Functions for Broad-Leaved Tree Species in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 1999

We measured leaf respiration in 18 eastern deciduous forest tree species to determine if there were differences in temperature-respiration response functions among species or among canopy positions. Leaf respiration rates were measured in situ an4 on detached branches for Acer pensylvanicum L., A. rubrum L., Betula spp. (B. alleghaniensis Britt. and B. renta L.), Carya...

Publication Challenges to interdisciplinary discourse
Published: 1999

Many of the world's critical problems involve human interactions with nature and their long-term implications for environmental quality and the sustainability of resource/ecological systems. These problems are complex defined by the collective behaviors of people as well as by the structure and function of ecosystems suggesting that both the social and the natural sciences...

Publication Hydrologic effects of cottonwood trees on a shallow aquifer containing trichloroethene
Published: 1999

In April 1996, a field demonstration was begun to evaluate the use of cottonwood trees to help clean up a trichloroethene contaminated shallow aquifer (< 4 meters below land surface) at the Naval Air Station, Fort Worth, Texas. Transpiration, climate, soil-moisture, and tree-root data were collected and used to parameterize and validate the hydrologic model PROSPER, which...

Publication Interspecific and environmentally induced variation in foliar dark respiration among eighteen southeastern deciduous tree species
Published: 1999

We measured variations in leaf dark respiration rate (R d ) and leaf nitrogen (N) across species, canopy light environment, and elevation for 18 co-occurring deciduous hardwood species in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina. Our overall objective was to estimate leaf respiration rates under typical conditions and to determine how they varied within and...

Publication Using stand replacement fires to restore southern Appalachian pine-hardwood ecosystems: effects on mass, carbon, and nutrient pools
Published: 1999

Pine-hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians are in serious decline due to fire exclusion and insect infestations. Fire has been advanced as a tool to restore these ecosystems, yet there are few studies evaluating overall ecosystem effects. The authors objectives were to evaluate the effects of stand restoration burning on forest floor nitrogen (N) and carbon (C)...

Publication Long-term patterns in vegetation-site relationships in a southern Appalachian forest
Published: 1999

The authors used permanent plot inventories from 1969-1973 and 1988-1993 to describe forest species distribution patterns of the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, a 2,185 ha basin in Western North Carolina, USA. They used canonical correspondence analysis to explore the vegetation-site patterns for the 1970 s and 1990 s inventories combined. Site variables were determined by...

Publication The effects of population growth on timber management and inventories in Virginia
Published: 1999

Expanding human populations may have important effects on the availability of timber from private lands in the South. To examine the effects of development on timber supply, the authors compared the density of populations and various site variables with expert opinions on the future location of commercial timberland for a study site in Virginia. Population density is a...

Publication Vegetation dynamics after a prescribed fire in the southern Appalachians
Published: 1999

In April 1995, the USDA Forest Service conducted a prescribed burn along with a south-facing slope of Southern Appalachian watershed, Nantahala National Forest, western NC. Fire had been excluded for over 70 years and the purpose of the burn was to create a mosaic of fire intensities to restore a degraded pine/hardwood community and to stimulate forage production and promote...

Publication Market Definition For Hardwood Timber in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 1999

Direct estimation of aggregate hardwood supply is seriously complicated by the diversity of prices, species, and site conditions in hardwood stands. An alternative approach is to aggregate regional supply based on stumpage values of individual stands, arguably the real driver of harvest decisions. Complicating this approach is that species-specific prices are only available...

Publication A comparative analysis of hydrologic responses of tropical deciduous and temperate deciduous watershed ecosystems to climatic change
Published: 1999

Long-term monitoring of ecological and hydrological processes is critical to understanding ecosystem function and responses to anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Much of the world's knowledge of ecosystem responses to disturbance comes from long-term studies on gaged watersheds. However, there are relatively few long-term sites due to the large cost and commitment...

Publication Land-use changes in Southern Appalachian landscapes: spatial analysis and forecast evaluation
Published: 1998

Understanding human disturbance regimes is crucial for developing effective conservation and ecosystem management plans and for targeting ecological research to areas that define scarce ecosystem services. The authors evaluate and develop a forecasting model for land-use change in the Southern Appalachians. The authors extend previous efforts by (a) addressing the spatial...

Publication People, space, time: factors that will govern forest sustainability
Published: 1998

People and their social organizations are the most substantial agents of change in forested ecosystems throughout the world. Even in the developed countries in the temperature latitudes, ongoing growth, and the transformation of economies continue to reshape forested landscapes. Resulting changes in both the extent and the structure of forests hold consequences for ecological...

Publication Predictions and Projections of Pine Productivity and Hydrology in Response to Climate Change Across the Southern United States
Published: 1998

The southeastern United States is one of the most rapidly growing human population regions in continental United States, and as the population increases, the demand for commercial, industrial, and residential water will also increase (USWRC, 1978). Forest species type, stand age, and the climate all influence the amount of water use and yield from these areas (Swank et al.,...

Publication Predicting Southern Appalachian overstory vegetation with digital terrain data
Published: 1998

Vegetation in mountainous regions responds to small-scale variation in terrain, largely due to effects on both temperature and soil moisture. However, there are few studies of quantitative, terrain-based methods for predicting vegetation composition. This study investigated relationships between forest composition, elevation, and a derived index of terrain shape, and evaluates...

Publication Southern Forest Resource Assessment and Linkages to the National RPA
Published: 1998

We developed a Southern Forest Resource Assessment Consortium (SOFAC) in 1994, which is designed to enhance our capabilities to analyze and model the southern forest and timber resources. Southern growth and yield analyses prepared for the RPA via SOFAC indicate that substantial increases in timber productivity can occur given current technology. A survey about NIPF...

Publication Fuel consumption and fire characteristics during understory burning in a mixed white pine-hardwood stand in the Southern Appalachians.
Published: 1998

We characterized tire behavior and fuel consumption resulting from an understory prescribed burn in a mixed eastern white pine-hardwood stand in the Southern Appalachians. These stands were used for the treatment. Flame lengths, ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 meters (m) for backing fires and from 1.2 to 4.5 m for head fires, reached maximum heights where evergreen understory was...

Publication Inventory Effects on Aggregate Timber Supply
Published: 1998

Separate Literatures exist to describe responses of timber owners and aggregate timber supply to product prices. While few investigators have alluded to the effects of varying inventory quality and ownership mix on the aggregate response, it is possible to describe how the responsiveness to prices can vary over time as the vintage of the timber inventory shifts. We estimated...

Publication Federal Timber Restrictions and Interregional Arbitrage in U.S. Lumber
Published: 1998

Harvesting restrictions to protect the habitat of the northern spotted owl on federal forests in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) substantially reduced timber available for precessing by the forest products industry. We consider the extent to with these restrictions may have altered the degree of integration of the PNW and U.S. South in a national market for lumber. Decriptive...

Publication Land cover along an urban-rural gradient: implications for water quality
Published: 1998

Developtlicnt pressures in rural mountainous areas of the United States hold crucial implications for water quality. Especially important arc changes in the extent and pattern of various land uses. We cxamille how position along an urban-rural gradient affects landscape pattcrns in a southern Appalachian watershed, first by testing for the effect of distance from an urban...

Publication Spatial and temporal specialization in forest ecosystem management under sole ownership
Published: 1997

Ecosystem management" complicates forest management considerably. In this paper the authors extend the economic analysis of forestry to capture both the temporal and the spatial dimensions, allowing optimization of timber harvest decisions throughout an ecosystem. Dynamic programming simulations illustrate the implications for the simplest ecosystem, consisting of two forest...

Publication Regional hydrologic response of loblolly pine to air temperature and precipitation changes
Published: 1997

Large deviations in average annual air temperatures and total annual precipitation were observed across the Southern United States during the last 50 years, and these fluctuations could become even larger during the next century. The authors used PnET-IIS, a monthly time-step forest process model that uses soil, vegetation, and climate inputs to assess the influence of...

Publication Soil respiration response to three years of elevated CO2 and N fertilization in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Laws.)
Published: 1997

We measured growing season soil CO 2 evolution under elevated atmospheric [CO 2 and soil nitrogen (N) additions. Our objectives were to determine treatment effects, quantify seasonal variation, and compare two measurement techniques. Elevated [CO 2 ] treatments were applied in open-top chambers containing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings. N applications were...

Publication Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina
Published: 1997

In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (Quercus...

Publication Land Ownership and Land-Cover Change in the Southern Appalachian Highlands and the Olympic Peninsula
Published: 1996

Social and economic considerations are among the most important drivers of landscape change, yet few studies have addressed economic and environmental influences on landscape structure, and how land ownership may affect landscape dynamics. Watersheds in the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and the southern Appalachian highlands of western North Carolina were studied to address...

Publication Effects of Rhododendron maximum L. on Acer rubrum L. Seedling Establishment
Published: 1996

Rhododendron maximum L. restricts regeneration of overstory species; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Three treatments were used to examine the effects of R. maximum germination success and survival of Acer rubrum L. under a closed overstory canopy: (1) R. maximum understory, (2) open understory,and (3) open understory with shadecloth. Shadecloth treatments...

Publication Shifts in Aboveground and Forest Floor Carbon and Nitrogen Pools After Felling and Burning in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 1996

Changes in aboveground and forest floor mass, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) pools were quantified on three sites in the southern Appalachians 2 yr after felling and burning. Before felling and burning, stands were characterized by sparse overstories and dense Kalmia latifolia L. understories. Two years after burning, foliar C and N pools had reached 25% and 29% of pretreatment...

Publication Institutional solutions to market failure on the landscape scale
Published: 1996

This paper offers an ecologically-based view of land and land value, building upon the multiproduct nature of ecosystems and upon landscape ecology. The paper questions the ability of markets to create optimal landscapes, even when traditional methods of internalizing externalities are applied, and concludes that attempting a complete valuation of ecosystems is quixotic....

Publication Forest management and timber production in the U.S. South [Document prepared for Canada/United States lumber consultations]
Published: 1996

This paper has described the evolution of the South's forest sector from several perspectives. Findings are summarized below: The South contains 24 percent of the U.S. land area, and 40 percent of U.S. timberland. Southern forests are among the most productive in the United States. Timberland ownership is dominated by private landowners. While ownership by forest industry...

Publication Forest Floor CO2 Flux From Two Contrasting Ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 1995

We measured forest floor CO 2 flux in two contrasting ecosystems (white pine plantation and northern hardwood ecosystems at low and high elevations, respectively) in May and September 1993 to quantify differences and determine factors regulating CO 2 fluxes. An automated IRGA based, flow through system was used with chambers inserted into the soil. This approach allowed...

Publication Effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on soil respiration from ponderosa pine (Pine ponderosa) in open-top chambers
Published: 1995

We measured growing season soil CO 2 evolution under elevated atmospheric CO 2 and soil nitrogen (N) additions. Our objectives were to determine treatment effects, quantify seasonal variation, and determine regulating mechanisms. Elevated CO 2 treatments were applied in open-top chambers containing 3-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings....

Publication Vertical leaf area distribution, light transmittance, and application of the Beer-Lambert Law in four mature hardwood stands in the southern Appalachians
Published: 1995

We quantified stand leaf area index and vertical leaf area distribution, and developed canopy extinction coefficients (k), in four mature hardwood stands. Leaf area index, calculated from litter fall and specific leaf area (cm g -1 ), ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 m m -2 . In three of the four stands, leaf area was distributed in the upper canopy. In the other stand, leaf area...

Publication Evaluation of the Competitive Environment for White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) Seedlings Planted on Prescribed Burn Sites in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 1995

We evaluated the competitive environment around planted white pine (Pinus strobus L.) seedlings and monitored the response of seedling growth to competition from naturally regenerating herbaceous and woody species for 2 yr after prescribed burning. We evaluated the bility of distance-independent and distance-dependent competition indices to predict resource availability,...

Publication Soil CO2 flux in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization: patterns and methods
Published: 1995

The evolution of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from soils is due to the metabolic activity of roots, mycorrhizae, and soil micro- and macro-organisms. Although precise estimates of carbon (C) recycled to the atmosphere from belowground sources are unavailable, Musselman and Fox (1991) propose that the belowground contribution exceeds 100 Pg y -1 globally. This represents a major...

Publication Soil pCO2, soil respiration, and root activity in CO2 - fumigated and nitrogen-fertilized ponderosa pine
Published: 1994

The purpose of this paper is to describe the effects of C0 2 and N treatments on soil pC0 2 , calculated CO 2 efflux, root biomass and soil carbon in open-top chambers planted with Pinus ponderosa seedlings. Based upon the literature, it was hypothesized that both elevated CO 2 and N would cause increased root biomass which would in turn cause increases in both total soil...

Publication Measuring Net Investment and Productivity in Timber Production
Published: 1994

An index number approach is developed for measuring changes in inputs, outputs, and total factor productivity in a timber-producing sector. These methods are applied to timber production in the U.S. South for the period 1952 to 1985. Results suggest that development of the sector may be described by an adjustment phase between 1952 and 1962 and a growth phase between 1962 and...

Publication Photosynthesis, water relations, and growth of planted Pinus strobus L. on burned sites in the southern Appalachians
Published: 1994

We measured net photosynthesis,leaf conductance, xylem water potential, and growth of Pinus strbus L. seedlings two years after planting on two clear-cut and burned sites in the southern Appalachians. Multiple regression analysis was used to relate seedling net pholosynthesis to vapor pressure deficit, seedling crown temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR),...

Publication The Economics of Timber Supply: An Analytical Synthesis of Modeling Approaches
Published: 1994

The joint supply of timber and other services from forest environments plays a central role in most forest land debates. This paper defines a general conceptual model of timber supply that provides the context for discussing both individual harvest choice and aggregate supply models. While the structure and breadth of these models has developed considerably over the last...

Publication Public and Private Forest Disturbance Regimes in the Southern Appalachians
Published: 1993

The choice to harvest timber depends on, among other things, the accessibility and location of the forest. This paper examines observed harvest choices derived from satellite imagery and tests for relationships between harvest probability and location, quality, and ownership attributes of the site. Results indicate that the overall probability of harvesting for public lands...

Publication U.S. Policy and Canadian Lumber: Effects of the 1986 Memorandum of Understanding
Published: 1993

A 1986 Memorandum of Understanding on softwood lumber imports (MOU) between Canada and the United States required that provinvial governments levy export taxes on softwood lumber shipped to the United States. This agreement, with subsequent amendments, influenced trade from 1987 until it was abandoned by Canada in October of 1991. This paper investigates the market impact of...

Publication Production Economics of Private Forestry: A Comparison of Industrial and Nonindustrial Forest Owners
Published: 1993

This paper compares the producrion behavior of industrial and nonindustrial private forestland owners in the southeastern U.S. using a restricted profit function. Profits are modeled as a function of two outputs, sawtimber and pulpwood. one variable input, regeneration effort. and two quasi-fixed inputs, land and growing stock. Although an identical profit function is...

Publication Site preparation burning to improve southern Appalachian pine-hardwood stands: photosynthesis, water relations, and growth of planted Pinus strobus during establishment
Published: 1993

Fire is now prescribed as a silvicultural treatment to restore low-diversity, low-productivity sites in southern Appalachian forests.Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) is then planted on many of these sites to provide a mixed pine-oak forest type (see Swift et al. 1993).Fire reduces sprout vigor, which delays growth of Kalmia latifolia L., a common understory shrub...

Publication Spatial Interactions in Multiple-Use Forestry and Substitution and Wealth Effects for the Single Stand
Published: 1993

Forestry models often ignore spatial relationships between forest stands. This paper isolates the effects of stand interactions in muitiple-use forestry through a straightforward extension of the single-stand model. Effects of stand interactions decompose into wealth and substitution effects and may cause time-varying patterns of resource use for a forest stand....

Publication Distributive Effects of Forest Service Attempts to Maintain Community Stability
Published: 1991

Community stability is an objective of USDA Forest Service timber sales. This paper examines that objective, and the success the Forest Service can have in attaining it, through its intended maintenance of a constant volume timber harvest schedule. We apply a three-factor, two-sector modified general equilibrium model with empirical evidence from the timber-based counties of...

Publication A Soil Temperature Model for Closed Canopied Forest Stands
Published: 1991

A microcomputer-based soil temperature model was developed to predict temperature at the litter-soil interface and soil temperatures at three depths (0.10 m, 0.20 m, and 1.25 m) under closed forest canopies. Comparisons of predicted and measured soil temperatures indicated good model performance under most conditions. When generalized parameters describing soil thermal...

Publication Policy-Relevant Nonconvexities in the Production of Multiple Forest Benefits?
Published: 1990

This paper challenges common assumptions about convexity in forest rotation models which optimize timber plus nontimber benefits. If a local optimum occurs earlier than the globally optimal age, policy based on marginal incentives may achieve suboptimal results. Policy-relevant nonconvexities are more likely if (i) nontimber benefits dominate for young stands while the...

Publication Research Directions in the Study of Timber Markets and Forest Policies
Published: 1990

Research on forest production and timber markets is reviewed and directions for future research are suggested.

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